Spring Steel Materials: A Comprehensive Guide

In the world of engineering and manufacturing, the choice of materials plays a crucial role in determining the success and durability of a product. One such material that has gained significant popularity in recent years is spring steel. Renowned for its exceptional strength, flexibility, and resilience, spring steel has become a go-to option for a wide range of applications.

In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of spring steel materials, exploring their properties, applications, and advantages.

Spring Steel Materials Classification

When it comes to spring materials, there are two main groups:

  1. Pretempered and
  2. Untempered.

Let’s take a closer look at each group and the different types of spring steel materials within them.

(i) Pretempered Materials:

The pretempered group includes oil-tempered wires, flat steels, hard drawn wires (such as music wire), and stainless steels. These materials are typically given a low temperature stress relieving treatment after being made into springs. They offer good endurance and fatigue properties.

(ii) Untempered Materials:

The untempered group consists of annealed high carbon steels and alloy steel bars, wires, and flats. After forming, these springs are hardened by quenching in oil and then tempered. Steel wire springs, especially valve springs of 10 mm diameter, are often in a pre-tempered state.

Material Specifications for Spring Steel Materials

Some common material standards and grades for spring steel materials:

  • ASTM A227: Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Cold-Drawn for Mechanical Springs
  • ASTM A228: Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Music Spring Quality
  • ASTM A229: Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Oil-Tempered for Mechanical Springs
  • ASTM A230: Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Oil-Tempered Carbon Valve Spring Quality
  • ASTM A231: Standard Specification for Chromium-Vanadium Alloy Steel Spring Wire
  • ASTM A232: Standard Specification for Chromium-Vanadium Alloy Steel Valve Spring Quality Wire
  • ASTM A401: Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Chromium-Silicon Alloy
  • ASTM A1000: Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Carbon and Alloy Specialty Spring Quality
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Spring Steel Materials


Steel, in general, has the highest endurance limit among all spring materials. Cold working, particularly cold drawing, further improves its properties. Heat treating spring steel is crucial for achieving the most effective elastic limit and the best fatigue properties. It is important to ensure that the surface conditions of the steel are sound and smooth, as corrosion and decarburization can significantly reduce the fatigue strength of steel springs. Removing the decarburized layer can increase the fatigue limits.

Plain Carbon Steel

Plain carbon steels, due to their low hardenability, are typically used for light springs, usually not exceeding 5 mm in thickness. Carbon steel is commonly used for helical springs, where the wire is first hardened by patenting and then drawn to the required strength.

Thin section carbon-steel springs can also be quenched and tempered. The hardness of the spring should match its dimensions, with smaller springs generally requiring higher hardness.

For example, watch springs that are only a few tenths of a millimeter in thickness are tempered at 160-300°C after being quenched. On the other hand, leaf springs with thicknesses of 1-3 mm are tempered at 300 to 400°C. Springs not subjected to impact blows show a maximum yield point at 300°C.

Alloy Steel

Alloy steels, in addition to high hardenability, generally have a higher elastic limit and better fatigue life compared to carbon steels. They can be used at higher temperatures, making them suitable for applications where plain carbon springs would not be suitable. Heavy-duty springs are often made from high carbon or alloy steels and shaped by hot-coiling.

Let’s take a closer look at some specific types of spring steel materials:

  1. High Carbon ‘Tempered’ Spring Wire: This type of high carbon steel is hardened by quenching in oil and tempered in a lead bath. It is commonly used for general-purpose coil springs up to 12.5 mm in diameter.
  2. Hard Drawn Wire: Hard drawn wire has lower tensile and elastic limits compared to tempered wire. It is cheaper and is used for helical springs subjected to steady loads.
  3. Music Wire (Also Called Piano Wire): Music wire is known for its toughness and is widely used for small springs subjected to high stresses, frequent deflections, and suddenly applied loads. It has high tensile strength, a fairly high elastic limit, and a bright surface finish. Music wire is cold-drawn and often undergoes low-temperature heat treatment to relieve stresses and improve its elastic limit and resistance to deformation.
  4. Clock and Watch Spring Steel: Clock and watch spring steel is a high carbon steel that is cold-rolled and heat-treated to achieve high hardness. It has very high tensile strength, with an elastic limit about 90% of the tensile strength and a hardness of 48-52 HRC. This type of steel is used for brush holders, clock and motor springs, and other flat springs subjected to high stresses. It is also commonly used as main-springs in watches and similar devices.
  5. Chromium-Vanadium Steel: Chromium-vanadium steel is ideal for high-stress applications that require high tensile strength, high yield strength, and high fatigue limit, especially at elevated temperatures. This steel retains its properties at temperatures above 150°C. Chromium increases hardenability, tensile strength, hardness, and toughness, while vanadium increases tensile strength, elastic limit, and toughness. Chromium-vanadium springs find applications in leaf, helical, and torsion bar springs, stabilizers for road vehicles, cup springs, spring washers, and more.
  6. Silico-Manganese Steel: Silico-manganese steel is reliable at temperatures up to 205°C and exceeds chromium-vanadium steels in heat resistance. It has high yield point and limits of elasticity. Manganese increases hardenability and reduces decarburization, while silicon increases hardenability and strengthens the ferrite. Silico-manganese steel is used for torsion bar springs, stabilizers, valve springs, leaf and coil springs, and more.
  7. Stainless Steel Springs: Stainless steels are gaining importance for springs that work at high temperatures and under corrosive conditions. Different types of stainless steels are used depending on the specific requirements. They offer higher heat resistance, corrosion resistance, and surface oxidation resistance. Stainless steel springs are commonly used in various applications, including those that require resistance to corrosion.
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Properties of Spring Steel:

  1. High Yield Strength: Spring steel possesses a high yield strength, allowing it to withstand significant loads without permanent deformation. This property makes it ideal for applications that require resistance to heavy forces and impacts.
  2. Excellent Elasticity: Spring steel exhibits exceptional elasticity, enabling it to return to its original shape after being subjected to deformation. This property is crucial for springs, as it ensures their ability to absorb and store mechanical energy.
  3. Superior Fatigue Resistance: Spring steel materials are designed to withstand repeated cycles of stress and strain without failure. This fatigue resistance is achieved through careful alloying and heat treatment processes, making spring steel highly reliable and long-lasting.
  4. Good Machinability: Spring steel can be easily machined, allowing for the creation of intricate shapes and designs. This property makes it a versatile material for various applications, including automotive components, tools, and machinery.

Applications of Spring Steel:

  1. Automotive Industry: Spring steel is extensively used in the automotive sector for manufacturing suspension systems, clutch springs, valve springs, and various other components. Its ability to withstand heavy loads and resist fatigue makes it an ideal choice for these applications.
  2. Industrial Machinery: Spring steel finds widespread use in industrial machinery, including power tools, conveyor systems, and agricultural equipment. Its high strength and elasticity make it suitable for applications that require reliable and efficient performance.
  3. Consumer Goods: Spring steel is also utilized in the production of consumer goods such as locks, hinges, and springs for furniture. Its durability and resistance to deformation ensure the longevity and functionality of these products.
  4. Aerospace and Defense: The aerospace and defense industries rely on spring steel for critical applications such as aircraft landing gear, missile systems, and firearm mechanisms. The material’s ability to withstand extreme conditions and maintain its performance is vital in these demanding environments.
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Advantages of Spring Steel:

  1. Cost-Effective: Spring steel offers an excellent balance between performance and cost, making it a cost-effective choice for many applications.
  2. Customizability: Spring steel can be tailored to meet specific requirements by adjusting its composition and heat treatment processes. This flexibility allows manufacturers to create springs and components with precise characteristics.
  3. Longevity: The fatigue resistance and durability of spring steel ensure a longer lifespan for products, reducing maintenance and replacement costs.

In conclusion, spring steel materials come in various types and compositions, each with its own unique properties and applications. Understanding the characteristics of different spring steel materials is crucial for selecting the right material for specific spring applications.